Straight forward, SEO is an abreviation for Search Engines Optimization.
Defining each word in the words included in the subject which are:
Search engines are online programs, scripts or software that index web pages and documents, rank them and display in the ranked manner in the search results whereby the highest ranked in the top position and the less ranked in the least position.
The popular search engines includes:
Google possessing the 80% of the SEs world wide
Yahoo possessing the 10% of the SEs world wide
BING formally MSN possessing the 5% of the SEs world wide
Other millions of SEs possessing the 5% of the SEs world wide
Search engines algorithms :
The mechanism in which SEs use to rank the indexed pages and documents in the SE’s database is what we call algorithm. The other word for algorithm is rules or method.
Google for example has more than 600 rules governing the ranking of the web pages in the database. each webpage has to score more points than the opponent webpages in order to be positioned at the top. Just image the students and their scores, unless the student score highest marks than the rest of the class he or she will not put in the first position in the class.
This is the process of making the webpage conform with those ranking rules. Taking an example of Google, their rules force the web designers and developer to put more emphasis on content creation and structuring the website. By more than 70% Google give point to the designed work than the pre or post design work.
example less emphasis on keyword rich domain, less focus on link building
More emphasis on title page, page heading, bold, anchor text and image text. The more emphasis also on keyword density and more worse emphasis on smaller webpage bounce rate
The optimization which is done during web page creation and design is what is called webpage optimization or simply onsite optimization.
The other optimization that count about 10% is link building optimizatioon but not from link farm and bad neighbors
Social media optimization include the following:
Social media sharing (eg facebook, linked in, google plus and twitter)
Social bookmarking sharing (digg and delicious)
Video sharing (Vimeo and Youtube)
Audio sharing (Soundcloud)
Forum presence (this varies according to your industry, engineering forums, political forums, general purpose forums etc.)
This is another powerful marketing approach where you list your website or webpage in the relevant category/categories to director visitors to you website.
Example of the directories include, dmoz.org
White and Black Hat SEO:
White Hat SEO is the type of seo doing that follow SEs rules while Black Hat SEO is a type of SEO doing that fool SEs to rank the page on top but once discovered, the page or the website will be penalized and may lead to permanent exclusion from database indexing and hence out of the race.